Background: The purpose of this research was to investigate whether high AMH levels in PCOS patients resulted in different IVF outcomes compared to those in non-PCOS patients. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted involving 238 women undergoing IVF who had AMH levels > 4 ng/ml. Participants were divided into two groups: PCOS and non-PCOS. Results: The median AMH level was significantly higher in the PCOS group (7.59 ± 4.61 ng/ml vs. 5.91 ± 2.22 ng/ml, p < 0.001). The PCOS group required less gonadotropin but yielded more oocytes after stimulation. Significantly more participants from the PCOS group (41.5% [n = 39]) developed a hyperresponse to ovarian stimulation compared to the non-PCOS group (26.4% [n = 38]) (OR = 1.978, 95% CI 1.138–3.488; p = 0.015). Conclusion: There were significant differences in terms of total doses of gonadotropin and the number of oocytes retrieved in the PCOS and non-PCOS groups. Women with PCOS and high AMH levels have a higher risk of hyperresponse after ovarian stimulation than women without PCOS.