Islamophobia among Muslims in Indonesia

Zora Arfina Sukabdi, Muhammad Adlin Sila, Chandra Yudistira Purnama, Fathul Lubabin Nuqul, Seta Ariawuri Wicaksana, Ali Abdullah Wibisono, Yanwar Arief

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Islamophobia has its long historical roots. Nonetheless, religiously motivated terrorism and the use of the name “Islam” by terrorist organizations such as the Islamic State (IS) may have amplified Islamophobia. Islamophobia has caused violence against Muslims in several stages and contexts. This study was held to investigate whether Islamophobia could also happen among Muslims in the largest Muslim population, Indonesia, as the majority Muslims avoid being associated with Islamist terrorists. Using quantitative method of analysis, the study formulated the Islamophobia Scale (IMOS) and involved 509 participants. The findings show that 92% of Muslims in Indonesia do not demonstrate any sign of Islamophobia. Nonetheless, 7.67% shows prejudice, fear, and rejection toward certain Islamic symbols, religious traditions, and Muslims with distinguished appearance which may be associated with terrorists’ outfits.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2209367
JournalCogent Social Sciences
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • discrimination
  • fear
  • hatred
  • Indonesia
  • Islamophobia
  • prejudice
  • stigmatization


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