Inventing Engineered Organoids for end-stage liver failure patients

Radiana D. Antarianto, Amer Mahmood, Angela Giselvania, Ayu Aa Prima Asri Dewi, Jatmiko Gustinanda, Jeanne Adiwinata Pawitan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

End-stage liver disease (ESLD) is a term used clinically in reference to a group of liver diseases with liver transplantation as the choice of treatment. Due to the limitations of liver transplantation, alternative treatments are needed. The use of primary human hepatocytes represents a valid alternative treatment, but the limitations related to hepatocyte quality, viability, function, conservation, and storage need to be overcome. Transplanted hepatocytes have only been followed for 6–9 months. Therefore, long-term causes of failures are not yet established, including rejection, apoptosis, or other causes. Other alternative therapies to replace liver transplantation include plasmapheresis, hemodiafiltration, and artificial livers. Unfortunately, these methods are highly limited due to availability, high cost, anaphylaxis reaction, development-deposition of immune-complexes, and restricted functionality. Liver organoids, which utilize stem cells instead of ‘impractical’ adult hepatocytes, may be a solution for the development of a complex bioartificial liver. Recent studies have explored the benefits of differentiating mature hepatocytes from stem cells inside a bioreactor. When the use of human-induced Hepatocytes (hiHeps) was investigated in mouse and pig models of liver failure, liver failure markers were decreased, hepatocyte function indicated by albumin synthesis improved, and survival time increased. Bioartificial liver treatment may decrease the infiltration of inflammatory cells into liver tissue by down-regulating pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)611-621
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Molecular Histology
Volume53
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022

Keywords

  • Artificial liver
  • Bioartificial liver
  • ESLD
  • Liver organoid
  • Liver transplant

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