Inter-District Road Infrastructure and Spatial Inequality in Rural Indonesia

Ribut Nurul Tri Wahyuni, Mohamad Ikhsan, Arie Damayanti, Khoirunurrofik Khoirunurrofik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Road quality plays an important role, especially in rural areas where most poor households are situated. This study aims to calculate the Rural Access Index (RAI), an indicator of rural road quality (SDG indicator 9.1.1), at the district level, to evaluate the implementation of the Nawacita programme in Indonesia from 2014–2020. The RAI describes the proportion of rural residents who live within 2 km of an all-season road. This study recommends the utilisation of road network maps, urban–rural boundary maps, three road network condition datasets, and WorldPop data to calculate the RAI. The results show that during this period, the RAI increased and its inequality decreased, specifically in the regions of priority for this programme (Papua and West Papua). The results also capture a strong pattern of regional convergence. To ensure the future success of this implementation, the government can create regulations to designate several road infrastructure projects as a national strategy, as well as increase tax collection and private sector investment as sources of road infrastructure development funding.

Original languageEnglish
Article number229
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2022


  • all-season road
  • inequality
  • regional convergence
  • Rural Access Index


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