Integrated Personal Health Record in Indonesia: Design Science Research Study

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Background: Personal health records (PHRs) are consumer-centric tools designed to facilitate the tracking, management, and sharing of personal health information. PHR research has mainly been conducted in high-income countries rather than in low- and middle-income countries. Moreover, previous studies that proposed PHR design in low- and middle-income countries did not describe integration with other systems, or there was no stakeholder involvement in exploring PHR requirements. Objective: This study developed an integrated PHR architecture and prototype in Indonesia using design science research. We conducted the research in Indonesia, a low- to middle-income country with the largest population in Southeast Asia and a tiered health system. Methods: This study followed the design science research guidelines. The requirements were identified through interviews with 37 respondents from health organizations and a questionnaire with 1012 patients. Afterward, the proposed architecture and prototype were evaluated via interviews with 6 IT or eHealth experts. Results: The architecture design refers to The Open Group Architecture Framework version 9.2 and comprises 5 components: architecture vision, business architecture, application architecture, data architecture, and technology architecture. We developed a high-fidelity prototype for patients and physicians. In the evaluation, improvements were made to add the stakeholders and the required functionality to the PHR and add the necessary information to the functions that were developed in the prototype. Conclusions: We used design science to illustrate PHR integration in Indonesia, which involves related stakeholders in requirement gathering and evaluation. We developed architecture and application prototypes based on health systems in Indonesia, which comprise routine health services, including disease treatment and health examinations, as well as promotive and preventive health efforts.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere44784
JournalJMIR Medical Informatics
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • design science
  • Indonesia
  • integrated
  • mobile phone
  • personal health record


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