Integrated Immunization Information System in Indonesia: Prototype Design Using Quantitative and Qualitative Data

Muhamad Adhytia Wana Putra Rahmadhan, Putu Wuri Handayani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: As the volume of immunization records increases, problems with fragmented records arise, especially since the majority of records in developing countries, including Indonesia, remain paper based. Implementing an immunization information system (IIS) offers a solution to this problem. Objective: In this study, we designed an integrated IIS prototype in Indonesia using the design science research (DSR) methodology. Methods: The stages of the DSR methodology followed in this study included identifying problems and motivating and defining objectives for a solution, design and development, demonstration, evaluation, communication, and drawing conclusions and suggestions. Specifically, this study began with problem formulation and a literature review. We then applied quantitative (questionnaire with 305 members of the public) and qualitative (interviews with 15 health workers including nurses, midwives, and doctors) data collection approaches. Results: The resulting high-fidelity prototype follows the 8 golden rules. There are 2 IIS designs, one for the public as immunization recipients and another for health workers. The functionalities include immunization history, schedule, recommendations, verification, certificates, reminders and recalls, coverage, monitoring, news, and reports of adverse events. Evaluation of the prototype was carried out through interviews and a questionnaire designed according to the System Usability Scale (SUS) and Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ). The SUS value was 72.5 or “Good (Acceptable),” while the system usefulness, information quality, interface quality, and overall value on the PSSUQ were 2.65, 2.94, 2.48, and 2.71, respectively, which indicate it has an effective design. Conclusions: This provides a guide for health facilities, health regulators, and health application developers on how to implement an integrated IIS in Indonesia.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere53132
JournalJMIR Formative Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023


  • high-fidelity prototype
  • immunization
  • immunization information system
  • Indonesia
  • vaccination


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