Indonesian trade liberalisation: Estimating the gains

Tubagus Feridhanusetyawan, Mari Elka Pangestu

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21 Citations (Scopus)


Indonesia has undergone comprehensive trade liberalisation by participating in multilateral and regional trade arrangements and by conducting unilateral liberalisation. This paper evaluates the different paths of liberalisation the country has followed, and measures their effects on the economy. It considers the impact of several liberalisation scenarios: unilateral liberalisation; regional liberalisation through APEC (Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation) and AFTA (the ASEAN Free Trade Area); and multilateral trade liberalisation through the Uruguay Round (UR). The results show that the full implementation of UR and APEC liberalisation would greatly benefit Indonesia, and that unilateral liberalisation, carried out in conjunction with the UR commitment, would lead to large welfare gains. On the other hand, the creation of AFTA is expected to add little to welfare in Indonesia or in the other ASEAN member countries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)51-74
Number of pages24
JournalBulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2003


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