Indonesian national growth reference charts better reflect height and weight of children in west java, indonesia, than who child growth standards

Novina Novina, Michael Hermanussen, Christiane Scheffler, Aman B. Pulungan, Yoyos Dias Ismiarto, Yudhie Andriyana, Vitriana Biben, Budi Setiabudiawan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: The Indonesia Basic Health Research 2018 indicates that Indonesian children are still among the shortest in the world. When referred to World Health Organization Child Growth Standards (WHOCGS), the prevalence of stunting reaches up to 43% in several Indonesian districts. Indonesian National Growth Reference Charts (INGRC) were established in order to better distinguish between healthy short children and children with growth disorders. We analyzed height and weight measurements of healthy Indonesian children using INGRC and WHOCGS. Methods: 6972 boys and 5800 girls (n=12,772), aged 0-59 months old, from Bandung District were measured. Z-scores of length/height and body mass index were calculated based on INGRC and WHOCGS. Results: Under 5-year-old Indonesian children raised in Bandung are short and slim. Mean height z-scores of boys is-2.03 [standard deviation (SD) 1.31], mean height z-scores of girls is-2.03 (SD 1.31) when referred to WHOCGS indicating that over 50% of these children are stunted. Bandung children are heterogeneous, with substantial subpopulations of tall children. Depending on the growth reference used, between 9% and 15% of them are wasted. Wasted children are on average half a SD taller than their peers. Conclusion: WHOCGS seriously overestimates the true prevalence of undernutrition in Indonesian children. The present investigation fails to support evidence of undernutrition at a prevalence similar to the over 50% prevalence of stunting (WHOCGS) versus 13.3% (INGRC). We suggest refraining from using WHOCGS, and instead applying INGRC that closely mirror height and weight increments in Bandung children. INGRC appear superior for practical and clinical purposes, such as detecting growth and developmental disorders.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)410-419
Number of pages10
JournalJCRPE Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Volume12
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020

Keywords

  • Anthropometric measurement
  • Bandung District children
  • Indonesian National Growth Reference Charts
  • Undernutrition
  • World Health Organization Child Growth Standards

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