Indonesian consensus on systemic therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma

Irsan Hasan, Imelda Maria Loho, Poernomo Boedi Setiawan, Ali Djumhana, Hery Djagat Purnomo, Lianda Siregar, Rino Alvani Gani, Andri Sanityoso Sulaiman, Cosmas Rinaldi Adithya Lesmana

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a deadly cancer with a rising incidence in the last 20 years. Most patients are diagnosed late when curative treatment is no longer feasible. With the background of chronic liver disease in most patients, the management of HCC becomes more complicated, in which well-preserved liver function is a prerequisite for locoregional or systemic therapies. In 2008, sorafenib became the first systemic agent proven to provide survival benefit for patients with advanced-stage HCC. For nearly a decade, no treatment has succeeded in providing better results than sorafenib. However, numerous advances in systemic therapies have emerged in the last 5 years to fulfill the unmet needs of effective therapeutic options. Several agents have been approved for clinical use after positive results in phase III clinical trials, including lenvatinib, regorafenib, cabozantinib, ramucirumab, and lastly immune checkpoint inhibitor atezolizumab in combination with bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor. With various options available, knowledge on the clinical evidence of each drug, their safety profile, as well as the patient characteristics and preferences become mandatory in clinical decision making. The objective of this consensus is to help clinicians, health-care workers, and policy makers in providing best clinical care for HCC patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)263-274
Number of pages12
JournalAsia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
Issue number1
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022


  • hepatocellular carcinoma
  • immune-checkpoint inhibitors
  • immunotherapy
  • systemic therapy
  • tyrosine-kinase inhibitors


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