Increase of Cardiometabolic Biomarkers Among Vehicle Inspectors Exposed to PM0.25 and Compositions

Doni Hikmat Ramdhan, Fitri Kurniasari, Mila Tejamaya, Aidila Fitri, Aisyah Indriani, Adinda Kusumawardhani, Muhayatun Santoso

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Exposure to particulate matter (PM) emitted from vehicle exhaust might disrupt systemic function and elevate the risk of cardiovascular disease. In this study, we examined the changes of cardiometabolic biomarkers among vehicle inspectors exposed daily to PM0.25 and components. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at two vehicle inspection centers, Pulogadung and Ujung Menteng, located in East Jakarta, Indonesia. The exposed respondents were 43 workers from vehicle inspection centers, and the unexposed group consisted of 22 staff officers working in the same locations. Vehicle exhaust particulate matter was measured for eight hours using a Leland Legacy personal pump attached to a Sioutas Cascade Impactor. The used filters were 25 and 37-mm quartz filters. The particulate matter concentration was analyzed using a gravimetric method, whereas trace elements were analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. An EEL Smoke Stain Reflectometer analyzed black carbon. Results: The personal exposure concentrations of PM0.25 were 10.4-fold higher than those in unexposed groups. Calcium and sulfur were the major components in the obtained dust, and their levels were 3.3- and 7.2-fold higher, respectively, in the exposed group. Based on an independent-samples t-test, high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, HbA1c, total immunoglobulin E, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor–alpha, and nitric oxide levels were significantly different between the groups. Conclusions: In summary, it was suggested that PM0.25 exposure from vehicle exhaust might affect cardiometabolic biomarkers change.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)114-118
Number of pages5
JournalSafety and Health at Work
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021


  • cardiometabolic syndrome
  • particulate matter
  • PM0.25
  • vehicle emission


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