In-vitro antioxidant, in-vivo anti-inflammatory, and acute toxicity study of Indonesian propolis capsule from Tetragonula sapiens

Siti Farida, Diah Kartika Pratami, Muhamad Sahlan, Dian Ratih Laksmitawati, Etin Rohmatin, Herbert Situmorang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Propolis is widely used as traditional medicine since ancient times. It was necessary to conduct the pre-clinical study because of its relevant curative properties. This study aimed to investigate in-vitro antioxidant, standardize quality parameters, study acute toxicity, and determine in-vivo anti-inflammatory. Three spectrophotometric methods were used to determine antioxidant activity. The standardization includes physical, chemical, and microbiological evaluation. Furthermore, an acute toxicity test was conducted using 20 female Sprague Dawley (SD) strain rats divided into 4 groups with different dose of propolis. The in vivo anti-inflammatory test was carried out using the carrageenan induction method on rats' soles. A total of 36 female SD rats were classified into 6 groups as follows, Group normal, negative control, diclofenac sodium, and three propolis groups (72; 144; and 288 mg/kg BW). The results demonstrated the IC50 values of the DPPH and ABTS scavenging activity 9.694 ppm and 2.213 ppm, respectively. The FRAP reducing power was 189.05 mg AaE/g. The physical appearance of propolis capsule was vegicaps as white – white, size 0, with light brown granule. Moreover, the content weight was 418.88 mg with a disintegration time of 7 min 53 s, while the water, flavonoid, and polyphenol contents were 9.07%, 1.59%, and 98.0821 mg GAE/g respectively. The content of heavy metal and microbial contamination were not detected. The acute toxicity results showed LD50 ≥ 5 g/kg BW, no toxicity symptoms, and no abnormalities in all rats. The anti-inflammatory inhibition percentage for groups III, IV, V, and VI was 11.86%, 6.53%, 7.81%, and 6.63% respectively, while the anti-inflammatory drugs effectiveness percentage compared to positive controls were 55.00%, 65.83%, and 55.83% respectively. Based on these results, it can be concluded that propolis capsules fulfilled the standardization requirements, and it is likely to be non-toxic, and effective as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2489-2500
Number of pages12
JournalSaudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2022


  • Acute toxicity
  • Anti-inflammation
  • Antioxidant
  • Propolis
  • Traditional medicine


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