A wide range of water problems faces nations and individuals around the world. These problems include international and regional disputes over water, water scarcity and contamination, unsustainable use of groundwater, ecological degradation, and the threat of climate change. At the heart of the world's water problems, however, is the failure to provide even the most basic water services for billions of people and the devastating human health problems associated with that failure. In 2000, the World Health Organization reported about regularly monitoring access to water and sanitation of 89 % of the world's population, in which about 1.1 billion people lacked access to'improved water supply'and more than 2.4 billion lacked access to'improved sanitation '. The development of water and basic sanitation services in Indonesia does not indicate any signifi cant progress in the last two decades. The prevalence of water-borne diseases tends to increase yearly, which poses a risk for a population of over a million people. Therefore, it is not realistic to achieve the Millennium Development Goals target by 2015. Redefi ning approaches like providing integrated programs and action in water and sanitation services must be a priority to protect human health in Indonesia.
- Health impacts
- Millennium development goals (MDG)
- Water and sanitation