Epidemiological studies have indicated that rural living might be protective against type 2 diabetes development. We compared the metabolic profile and response to a short-Term high-fat high-calorie diet (HFD) of men with the same genetic background living in an urban and rural area of Indonesia. First, we recruited 154 Floresian male subjects (18-65 years old), of whom 105 lived in a rural area (Flores) and 49 had migrated and lived in urban area (Jakarta) for more than 1 year. The urban group had significantly higher whole-body insulin resistance (IR), as assessed by homeostatic-model-Assessment of IR (HOMA-IR), [mean difference (95% CI), p-value: 0.10 (0.02-0.17), p = 0.01]. Next, we recruited 17 urban and 17 rural age-And-BMI-matched healthy-young-male volunteers for a 5-day HFD challenge. The HOMA-IR increased in both groups similarly-0.77 (-2.03-0.49), p = 0.22]. Neither rural living nor factors associated with rural living, such as current helminth infection or total IgE, were associated with protection against acute induction of IR by HFD.