Immunogenicity and safety in healthy adults of full dose versus half doses of COVID-19 vaccine (ChAdOx1-S or BNT162b2) or full-dose CoronaVac administered as a booster dose after priming with CoronaVac: a randomised, observer-masked, controlled trial in Indonesia

BCOV21 study group

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Abstract

Background: Inactivated COVID-19 vaccines effectively prevent death, but their effectiveness for preventing infection or severe illness is known to decrease within 3–6 months following the second priming dose. Here we aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of three potential booster vaccines administered as a full-dose homologous booster or full-dose or half-dose heterologous boosters among individuals primed with CoronaVac. Methods: We did an observer and participant masked, randomised controlled trial study of healthy Indonesian adults from five recruitment sites in Bandung and Jakarta, Indonesia, aged 18 years and older who had previously received two doses of CoronaVac within 3 to less than 6 months or 6 to 9 months before the booster dose. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1) by means of stratified randomisation with random block size to a homologous booster with full-dose CoronaVac or heterologous boosters with ChAdOx1-S or BNT162b2 in full dose or half dose. The primary outcome was to evaluate the seropositive, seroconversion rate, and the geometric mean titres of IgG anti-spike-receptor binding domain and neutralising antibodies, 28 days after booster dose vaccination in the per-protocol population. Safety was assessed as a secondary outcome in all vaccinated booster participants by the incidence rate and intensity of adverse events within 24 h, 7 days, and 28 days after the booster dose. This study is registered with ina-registry.org, INA-GO0HLGB, and is complete. Findings: Between Nov 26 and Dec 16, 2021, 1015 people were screened, and 960 healthy adults were enrolled; 190–193 were included in each group. 28 days after receiving the booster, combining the 3 to less than 6 months and 6 to 9 months groups, the proportions of seroconversion rates in each vaccine group were ChAdOx1-S 75 (82%) of 92 to 87 (88%) of 99 for full dose and half dose, BNT162b2 92 (92%) of 100 to 90 (98%) of 92 for full dose and half dose, and CoronaVac in 38 (41%) of 92 to 65 (66%) of 98. All booster groups achieved 100% seropositivity 28 days after the booster dose. Participants in the 6 to 9 months priming group achieved higher titres compared with participants in the 3 to less than 6 months priming group. The geometric mean titres in participants in the 6 to 9 months priming group in each vaccine group were ChAdOx1-S 11258·69 (9562·43–13 255·85) and 7853·04 (6698·92–9206·00) for full dose and half dose, BNT162b2 19999·84 (17 720·58–22 572·25) and 17 017·62 (14 694·40–19 708·16) for full dose and half dose and CoronaVac 1440·55 (1172·81–1769·42) achieved higher titres compared with participants in the 3 to less than 6 months priming group which in each vaccine group were ChAdOx1-S 7730·39 (6401·87–9334·60) and 6684·34 (5678·94–7867·73) for full dose and half dose, BNT162b2 16594·08 (13 993·08–19 678·55) and 12 121·67 (9925·21–14 804·19) for full dose and half dose, and CoronaVac 1210·23 (976·49–1499·92). The median percentage inhibition for the surrogate virus neutralisation test against the delta B.1.617.2 and wild-type (WT) variant before the booster and 28 days after the booster dose was very high in all groups (p<0·001), all with greater than 90% inhibition against both delta and WT strains. No serious adverse events were associated with the vaccines. Within the heterologous booster groups, the adverse event rates in the half-dose groups were lower compared with the full-dose groups. Interpretation: Geometric mean titre values between participants in the 6 to 9 months priming group and the 3 to less than 6 months priming group before the booster dose and between half-dose and full-dose groups 28 days before the booster were not significantly different for half-dose ChAdOx1-S, full-dose BNT162b2, and CoronaVac and were significantly different for full-dose ChAdOx1-S and half-dose BNT162b2. Among individuals primed with CoronaVac, boosting with BNT162b2 (full dose or half dose) or ChAdOx1-S (full dose or half dose) produces substantially better immune responses than in those boosted with CoronaVac. Full-dose and half-dose boosting with either BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1-S produced similar responses. Heterologous booster with half-dose might be considered in adults primed with two doses of CoronaVac vaccine. Funding: Ministry of Health, Indonesia. Translation: For the Indonesian translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)545-555
Number of pages11
JournalThe Lancet Infectious Diseases
Volume23
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2023

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