Immune status of people living in the Tande-Tande sub-village (Indonesia), an area with high indoor radon concentration

Sofiati Purnami, Dwi Ramadhani, Tiara Andalya Oktariyani, Viria Agesti Suvifan, Devita Tetriana, Irawan Sugoro, Nastiti Rahajeng, Septelia Inawati Wanandi, Heri Wibowo, Masaru Yamaguchi, Ikuo Kashiwakura, Mukh Syaifudin, Retno Widowati

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

On Earth, there are significant variations in terms of exposure to naturally occurring radiation among different areas. Radon, a naturally-occurring radioactive gas that is the primary cause of lung cancer in nonsmokers and the second most prevalent cause among smokers, poses a considerable risk. Indoor radon, in particular, constitutes the most substantial source of natural radiation to which individuals are exposed. This study assessed the immune status of a population chronically exposed to high indoor radon concentration in Indonesia. Fifty-seven subjects from the Tande-Tande sub-village (high indoor radon concentration area) were compared to fifty-three participants living in the Topoyo village (low concentration area). We contrasted the immunological conditions of these two populations by measuring levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and IL-10 in serum. Moreover, we also measured levels of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and protein kinase B in its phosphorylated (pAkt) and non-phosphorylated form (Akt) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of a subset of participants (31 from each population). TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-4 levels in Tande-Tande sub-village inhabitants were significantly lower than those in the control group living in the Topoyo village (p = 0.001, p = 0.017, and p = 0.002). The concentration of IL-10 also tended to be lower in people living in the high indoor radon concentration area, but it did not differ significantly between Tande-Tande sub-village inhabitants and Topoyo inhabitants (p = 0.106). Protein levels of NF-κB, pAkt, and Akt in Tande-Tande sub-village inhabitants also did not differ significantly between Tande-Tande sub-village inhabitants and Topoyo inhabitants (p = 0.234, p = 0.210, and p = 0.657). Similarly, activities of SOD and GPX did not differ significantly between the two populations (p = 0.569 and p = 0.949). Overall, despite their chronic exposure to high indoor radon concentrations, our study revealed no increase in the levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-4, SOD, and GPX in the inhabitants of Tande-Tande sub-village compared with people living in the Topoyo village. Furthermore, our study demonstrated no activation in the Akt pathway, as indicated by the pAkt/Akt ratio observed in PBMC lysates of individuals residing in the Tande-Tande sub-village.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)449-463
Number of pages15
JournalRadiation and Environmental Biophysics
Volume62
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2023

Keywords

  • Akt
  • Antioxidant
  • Cytokine
  • Mamuju
  • NF-κB
  • Radio-adaptive response
  • Radon

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