Identification of Pacemaker Lead Position Using Fluoroscopy to Avoid Significant Tricuspid Regurgitation

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Permanent pacemaker implantation improves survival but can cause tricuspid valve dysfunction in the form of tricuspid regurgitation (TR). The dominant mechanism of pacemaker-mediated TR is lead impingement. This study evaluated the association between the location of the pacemaker leads crossing the tricuspid valve and the incidence of worsening TR and lead impingement using fluoroscopy. Lead positions were evaluated using perpendicular right anterior oblique (RAO) and parallel left anterior oblique (LAO) fluoroscopic angulation views of the tricuspid annulus. A two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) was performed to evaluate the maximum TR jet area-to-right atrium ratio and define regurgitation severity. A three-dimensional TTE was performed to evaluate lead impingement. A worsening of TR was observed in 23 of 82 subjects. Most leads had an inferior position in the RAO view and a septal position in the LAO view. The mid position in the RAO view and septal position in the LAO view were risk factors for lead impingement. Mid and septal positions were associated with higher risks of significant TR and lead impingement. Lead impingement was associated with a high risk of significant TR. Pacemaker-mediated TR remains a significant problem after lead implantation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4782
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023


  • fluoroscopy
  • jet area
  • lead impingement
  • transthoracic echocardiogram
  • tricuspid regurgitation


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