Hybrid Journalism in an Online News Startup

Andika Wahyu Widyantoro, Irwansyah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The development of communication information technology contributes to the emergence citizen journalism (CJ) in the media. CJ is supported by new internet technologies, especially Web 2.0–based websites known as participatory webs. Through CJ and other types of user-generated content (UGC), members of the public express their opinions and raise issues of importance. Participatory users who use interactive modes are increasingly influencing the world of mainstream media, including online outlets. Media institutions adapt to the development of CJ, for example, by giving greater spaces for the public to publish works online. Furthermore, online media must adapt to CJ products, which are mostly distributed through social media. Online media are faced with two choices, namely, objectivity as a basic practice of journalism and engagement with users. Some media choose entrepreneurial journalism as an approach to building a news startup that embodies a certain form, namely, hybrid journalism. This form can be seen as the result of sliced CJ curves and professional media. This research article highlights how an online startup, Kumparan, practices both entrepreneurial and hybrid journalism. The study uses a qualitative method and case study strategy with online observation data collection and documentation about Kumparan. The results show that the practices of entrepreneurial and hybrid journalism are adaptations and survival steps to deal with changes in the media world, especially those related to traditional journalistic practices and engagement as a consequence of the strengthening of social media. The online media startup gives CJ greater access and space, including in editorials, which were previously closed to outsiders. This shows a future trend of journalism, namely, the growing development of cooperation, engagement, and collaboration between CJ and online media in the form of entrepreneurial and hybrid journalism.


  • Citizen Journalism
  • Entrepreneurial Journalism
  • Hybrid Journalism
  • Internet
  • Online Media
  • Startup Media
  • User-Generated Content (UGC)


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