Human Milk Oligosaccharide Profiles and the Secretor and Lewis Gene Status of Indonesian Lactating Mothers

Verawati Sudarma, Diana Sunardi, Nanis Sacharina Marzuki, Zakiudin Munasir, Asmarinah, Adi Hidayat, Badriul Hegar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Purpose: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) may be genetically determined based on the secretor and Lewis status of the mother. This study aims to determine the HMO profile and the secretor and Lewis gene status of Indonesian lactating mothers. Methods: Baseline data of 120 mother-infant pairs between 0-4 months post-partum obtained from a prospective longitudinal study was used. The concentrations of 2'-fucosyllactose (2’FL), lacto-N-fucopentaose I (LNFP I), lacto-N-tetraose (LNT), lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), 3'-sialyllactose (3’SL), and 6'-sialyllactose (6’SL) were measured. Genetic analysis was performed for mothers using targeted next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing. Wild-type AA with the rs1047781 (A385T) polymorphism was categorized as secretor positive, while heterozygous mutant AT was classified as a weak secretor. The presence of rs28362459 (T59G) heterozygous mutant AC and rs3745635 (G508A) heterozygous mutant CT genes indicated a Lewis negative status, and the absence of these genes indicated a positive status. Subsequently, breast milk was classified into various groups, namely Group 1: Secretor+Lewis+ (Se+Le+), Group 2: Secretor−Lewis+ (Se−Le+), Group 3: Secretor+Lewis− (Se+Le−), and Group 4: Secretor−Lewis−(Se−Le−). Data were analyzed using the Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis rank tests, and a p-value of 0.05 indicated statistical significance. Results: A total of 58.3% and 41.7% of the samples had positive and weak secretor statuses, respectively. The proportion of those in Group 1 was 85%, while 15% were Group 3. The results showed that only 2'FL significantly differed according to the secretor status (p-value=0.018). Conclusion: All Indonesian lactating mothers in this study were secretor positive, and most of them had a Lewis-positive status.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)266-276
Number of pages11
JournalPediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Human
  • Infant
  • Milk
  • Oligosaccharides


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