How well are Indonesia's urban poor being provided access to quality reproductive health services?

Elvira Liyanto, Dewi Nuryana, Restu Adya Cahyani, Budi Utomo, Robert Magnani

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4 Citations (Scopus)


Accommodating the needs of Indonesia's rapidly growing urban population is essential to reaching national reproductive health goals and international commitments. As in other rapidly urbanizing low- and middle-income countries, satisfying the needs of Indonesia's urban poor is both a high priority and a significant challenge. In this study, we assessed both how being from urban poor or near-poor households affects the quantity and quality of family planning and maternal health services received and the extent to which differentials had narrowed during the 2012-2017 period. This time interval is significant due to the introduction of a national social health insurance scheme in 2014, establishing the foundation for universal health care in the country. Data from the 2012 and 2017 Indonesian Demographic and Health Surveys were analyzed using logistic and multinomial logit regression. Poverty status was measured in terms of urban household wealth quintiles. For family planning, although urban poor and near-poor women made different method choices than non-poor women, no substantial 2017 differences in contraceptive prevalence, unmet need for family planning or informed choice were observed. However, urban poor women and to a lesser extent nearpoor women systematically lagged non-poor urban women in both the quantity and quality of maternal health services received in connection with recent pregnancies. Significant maternal health service gains were observed for all urban women during the study reference period, with gains for poor and near poor urban women exceeding those for non-poor on several indicators. While the deployment of pro-poor interventions such as the national social health insurance scheme is likely to have contributed to these results, evidence suggesting that the scheme may not be influencing consumer health-seeking behaviors as had been anticipated along with continued limitations in public health sector supply-side readiness resulting in service quality issues suggest that more will have to be done.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0265843
JournalPloS one
Issue number4 April
Publication statusPublished - 12 Apr 2022


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