How visual angle influences product recommendations in response to two-sided messages

Sari Winahjoe, Widya Paramita, Frances Seowon Jin, Tung Moi Chiew, Arnold Japutra, Felix Septianto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: Two-sided messages in advertising, which contain both negative and positive information, can have varying effects on persuasion. Thus, it is crucial to understand the conditions under which such messages are more or less effective compared to one-sided messages that only contain positive information. This research investigates the moderating role of the visual angle (close-up vs. long shot) of an image by drawing upon construal level theory. Design/methodology/approach: This research reports two experimental studies employing a 2 (message: two-sided [positive and negative information], one-sided [positive information as a control condition]) × 2 (visual angle: near [close-up], distant [long shot]) between-subjects design. Findings: The results demonstrate that two-sided messages paired with a close-up image decrease positive electronic word of mouth (eWOM) due to increased feelings of ambivalence, while two-sided messages paired with a long-shot image increase positive eWOM due to increased perceived authenticity. Originality/value: These findings provide insight into the impact of two-sided messages on advertising persuasion and provide guidance for marketers in developing effective communication strategies to leverage positive eWOM.

Original languageEnglish
JournalMarketing Intelligence and Planning
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2024


  • Construal level
  • eWOM
  • Two-sided messages
  • Visual angle


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