Objective: To highlight the shifting paradigm of periodontitis, describe mechanism of periodontal bone destruction, and propose an updated host modulation therapy (HMT) strategy. To add further clinical relevance, related studies investigating the efficacy of several HMT agents in periodontitis will be discussed. Design: Literature searches were conducted from articles published in PubMed using keywords “periodontal disease AND periodontitis AND host modulation therapy AND anti-inflammatory AND antioxidant”, and then the findings were comprehensively summarized and elaborated. Result: Accumulating evidence indicates that periodontitis is no longer defined solely as a pathogen-induced disease; rather, it is now recognized as a consequence of uncontrolled immune response and oxidative stress leading to periodontal tissue damage. Although periodontopathic bacteria initiate the disease, inflammation and oxidative stress were reported to be the main causes for the severity of tissue destruction. Thus, since the concept of periodontitis has shifted, our approach to its management needs to be adjusted to accommodate the latest paradigm. Nowadays, the modulation of inflammation and oxidative stress is considered a target of HMT. HMT agents, such as probiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-chemokines, lipid mediators, and bio-active fatty acids, have been extensively investigated for their remarkable functions in modulating the immune response and providing antioxidant effects. Conclusion: Findings from in vitro, in vivo, and human studies frequently demonstrate positive association by the administration of HMT in periodontitis. HMT strategy targeted on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant in periodontitis might serve as an excellent therapeutic approach to reach the level of clinical benefit.
- Host modulation