Helminths, hygiene hypothesis and type 2 diabetes

K. de Ruiter, D. L. Tahapary, E. Sartono, P. Soewondo, T. Supali, J. W.A. Smit, M. Yazdanbakhsh

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

47 Citations (Scopus)


Worldwide, there is little overlap between the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Helminth-induced type 2 immune responses and immune regulatory network might modulate the obesity-induced activation of inflammatory pathways that are associated with the development of insulin resistance, a strong predictor of the development of T2D. However, other factors such as helminth-associated changes in adiposity and gut microbiome might also contribute to improved metabolic outcomes. In this review, we summarize epidemiological evidence for the link between helminths and T2D and discuss the potential mechanisms, based on findings from experimental studies as well as the limited number of studies in humans.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere12404
JournalParasite Immunology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2017


  • helminths
  • human
  • hygiene hypothesis
  • insulin resistance
  • metabolic disease
  • type 2 diabetes


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