This study aimed to assess the impact of health education on the caring practices of low-birthweight (LBW) infant mothers in Central Jakarta, Indonesia. A quasi-experiment design with a pretest-post-test control group model was conducted on 159 mothers (78 in the intervention group and 81 in the control group) of LBW infants treated in the perinatology ward of three hospitals in Central Jakarta. Provision of health education to mothers of LBW infants consisted of counselling sessions and one-on-one visits provided by primary health centre nurses. Data were collected four times consecutively over 6 weeks. A generalized estimating equation model with a linear link function was employed to examine LBW infant practice score changes due to intervention and other influential factors at four time points. Results: The LBW infant care practice scores were higher in the intervention group than in the control group at each measurement point. After controlling for maternal attitudes, LBW infant health education increased mothers' infant care practices at 2, 6 and 12 weeks by 2.179, 2.803 and 2.981 points, respectively, and reduced infant morbidity. Six weeks of health education had an effective impact on mothers' home LBW infant care practices and infant health status.