Gut microbiome pattern in adolescents with functional gastrointestinal disease

Andrew R. Nafarin, Badriul Hegar, Hikari Ambara Sjakti, Yvan Vandenplas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Functional gastrointestinal disease (FGID)has a worldwide prevalence of 10–45%, and is one of the most common causes of recurrent abdominal pain in children. FGID is characterized with abdominal discomfort and changes in bowel movement. Alteration in gut microbiota is associated with FGID, but data are limited, and there are no data from Indonesia. Methods: A case–control study was conducted in 22 FGID children and 28 healthy subjects aged 13–18 years at the junior high school and senior high school in Central Jakarta. FGID was diagnosed using Rome IV criteria. Age, sex, and level of education were recorded. Stool samples were collected and investigated for Bifidobacterium spp. and Enterobacteriaceae. Results: Most of the FGID subjects were females (17/22), with a median age of 16 years. The median values of Bifidobacterium spp. were 138.95 (range: 0.2–22,735.8)CFU/gram for the FGID subjects and 232.5 (range: 1.9–38,985.6)CFU/gram in healthy subjects, which showed no statistically significant difference (P =.49). The median values of Enterobacteriaceae were 58.9 (range: 2.5–9577.8)CFU/gram in FGID subjects and 85 (range: 12.1–3139.4)CFU/gram in healthy subjects, which showed no statistically significant difference (P =.94). Our findings indicate that the gut microbiome of adolescents with FGIDs is characterized by a huge variability in levels of Bifidobacterium spp. and Enterobacteriaceae. Conclusion: Because of the wide range detected in the number of Bifidobacterium spp. and Enterobacteriaceae in FGID and healthy subjects, no statistically significant difference was observed. More studies in larger groups of selected patients may be needed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12-15
Number of pages4
JournalInternational Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2019


  • Adolescents
  • Functional gastrointestinal disease
  • Microbiome


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