Growth and developmental delay risk factors among under-five children in an inner-city slum area

Hartono Gunardi, Resyana P. Nugraheni, Annisa R. Yulman, Soedjatmiko, Rini Sekartini, Bernie E. Medise, Angga Wirahmadi, Elizabeth Melina

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9 Citations (Scopus)


Background Growth and developmental delays are common among children under the age of five years (under-five children), especially in slum areas. Early detection and intervention may give better prognoses. Objective To detect growth and developmental delays and related risk factors among under-five children living in an inner-city slum area of the Indonesian capital. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from October to November 2018 in Tanah Tinggi, Johar Baru District, an inner-city slum area in Central Jakarta. Subjects were healthy children aged 3-60 months. Socioeconomic profile was obtained through questionnaires, anthropometric data through measurements, and developmental status through the Kuesioner Pra Skrining Perkembangan (KPSP) instrument. Development was considered to be delayed for KPSP scores <9. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results Of 211 subjects, prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting were 35.1%, 28.0%, and 20.9%, respectively, meanwhile low maternal education, and low family income were 57.9% and 75%. The prevalence of developmental delay was 10%, while suspected developmental delay was 26.1%. The prevalence increased from age 21 months and peaked at 36 months. Associated risk factors were low maternal education, low family income, underweight weight-for-age, stunted height-for-age, and microcephalic head circumference-for-age.Conclusion Low education and low income were significant risk factors for growth and developmental delay.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)276-283
Number of pages8
JournalPaediatrica Indonesiana(Paediatrica Indonesiana)
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2019


  • development
  • growth
  • slum area


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