Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Hardiono D. Pusponegoro, Pustika Efar, Soedjatmiko, Amanda Soebadi, Agus Firmansyah, Hui Ju Chen, Kun Long Hung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

64 Citations (Scopus)


Background While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and socialization skills in children with ASD. Methods This was a cross-sectional study including 40 ASD children aged from 18 months to 6 years and 40 age-matched typically developing controls. Gross motor and socialization skills were scored using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 2nd edition (Vineland-II). Results Below average gross motor function was found in eight of 40 (20%) ASD children. The mean gross motor v-scale score in the ASD group was 15.1 [standard deviation (SD) 3.12], significantly lower than in the control group [18.7, SD 2.09, p = 0.0001; 95% confidence intervals (CI) from −4.725 to −2.525]. The differences were most prominent in ball throwing and catching, using stairs, jumping, and bicycling. The ASD children with gross motor impairments had a mean socialization domain score of 66.6 (SD 6.50) compared to 85.7 (SD 10.90) in those without gross motor impairments (p = 0.0001, 95% CI from −25.327 to −12.736). Conclusion Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)501-507
Number of pages7
JournalPediatrics and Neonatology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2016


  • Vineland-II
  • autism spectrum disorder
  • gross motor skill
  • socialization skill


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