Gradient liquid chromatography of leucine-enkephalin peptide and its metabolites with electrochemical detection using highly boron-doped diamond electrode

Ivandini Tribidasari Anggraningrum, B. V. Sarada, C. Terashima, T. N. Rao, D. A. Tryk, H. Ishiguro, Y. Kubota, A. Fujishima

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27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Boron-doped diamond thin film (BDD) electrodes have been used to study the oxidation reactions and to detect leucine-enkephalinamide (LEA) and its metabolites, tyrosine (T), tyrosyl-alanine (TA), tyrosyl-alanine-glycine (TAG) and leucine-enkephalin (LE) using cyclic voltammetry (CV), flow-injection analysis (FIA), and gradient liquid chromatography (LC) with amperometric detection. At diamond electrodes, well-defined and highly reproducible cyclic voltammograms were obtained with signal-to-background (S/B) ratios 5-10 times higher than those observed for glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. The analytical peaks of LC for LEA and its metabolites were well resolved. No deactivation of BDD electrodes was found after several experiments with standard as well as plasma samples, indicating high stability of the electrode. Calibration curves were linear over a wide range from 0.06 to 30 μM with regression coefficients of 0.999 for all compounds. The limits of detection obtained based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1 were 3, 2.2, 2.7, 20 and 11 nM for T, TA, TAG, LE and LEA, respectively. These values were at least one order lower than those obtained at GC electrodes, which has given limits of detection of 22.88, 20.64, 89.57, 116.04 and 75.67 for T, TA, TAG, LE and LEA, respectively. Application of this method to real samples was demonstrated and validated using rabbit serum samples. This work shows the promising use of conducting diamond as an amperometric detector in gradient LC, especially for the analysis of enkephalinamide and its metabolites.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)63-72
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Volume791
Issue number1-2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 5 Jul 2003

Keywords

  • Boron-doped diamond electrode
  • Electrochemical detection
  • Enkephalins
  • Leucine-enkaphalin
  • Peptides

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