Gouging elimination through tool lifting in tool path generation for five-axis milling based on faceted models

Gandjar Kiswanto, B. Lauwers, J. P. Kruth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Citations (Scopus)


Five-axis milling may be performed with a constant tool-orientation or varying optimal tool-orientation. When applying a constant tool orientation, the inclination angle, the angle between the tool axis and the normal vector of a contact point (cc-point), is kept constant along the tool path. On the other hand, when applying a varying optimal tool orientation, the tool inclination angle is dynamically optimized along the tool path in order to maintain the tool to be as close as possible to the surface without gouging. In both tool orientation methods, tool lifting is one of the crucial components and involved in tool path generation, especially when it is used for gouging elimination. For the constant tool orientation, the tool is lifted immediately when the specified inclination angle causes gouging with the part surface. In the case of varying optimal tool orientation, the minimum rotation angle (inclination angle) has to be found first to avoid gouging. If the gouging still occurs (e.g. due to limited rotational axes of the milling machine), then the tool is lifted. In this paper, gouging elimination through tool lifting for five-axis milling based on a faceted model is presented. The tool is lifted based on the types of gouging. These types of gouging are described and the tool lifting procedure has been developed and implemented for gouging elimination in both tool orientation methods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)293-309
Number of pages17
JournalInternational Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2007


  • Faceted model
  • Five-axis milling
  • Gouging elemination
  • Tool lifting


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