Genetic contributions to craniofacial growth: A review

A. T. Andriani, P. K. Zahra, E. I. Auerkari

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The human head consist of numerous bones. The bones of the face are suspended from the anterior portion of the cranium. These bones are responsible for the face and head form. The facial surface is immediately recognizable and seen which has a close association to the skeletal and cartilaginous structures. The diversity in shape, relative size, and spatial arrangement (vertical, horizontal and depth) between the assorted facial features such as nose, eyes. lips. etc., make individual human face unique, respectively. In recent years, study of various number of genes that contribute to craniofacial growth continuous to evolve, while the impact of individual genes on normal craniofacial variation is few established. Genes such as Homeobox. Sonic Hedgehog, transcription factor and IHH take important roles in craniofacial growth. In the other hand, it is also known that the genetic disorder of these signalling pathways may result abnormalities in the growth or fusion of the craniofacial processes and numerous anomalies. Genes may therefore take part in the development of craniofacial complex. Furthermore, clinicians need to be knowledgeable the combination and interaction of genetic and environmental factors of growth potential to perform an appropriate diagnose and treatment planning. In this review, the function of various individual genes involved in growth of facial region are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number012095
JournalJournal of Physics: Conference Series
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 14 Jul 2021
Event10th International Seminar on New Paradigm and Innovation of Natural Sciences and itsApplication, ISNPINSA 2020 - Virtual, Online, Indonesia
Duration: 24 Sept 202025 Sept 2020


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