Jakarta is the center of business and economy in Indonesia causing commuting workers to Jakarta every day become a common phenomenon. They pack Jakarta for working in the morning and return to their residence in the afternoon. This study aims to analyze the link between commuting and health and whether these relationships differ by gender. The study used a cross-sectional design of 4,533 commuters using the mode of transportation except walking/cycling. The findings of this study show that commuting has a physical impact only on male commuters, whereas the psychic influenced women and men, but has no impact on social outcomes. Public transportation has a lower health risk than cars and motorcycles, especially where the duration journey above 60 minutes. The findings of this study contribute to the academic field in urban development studies, including public transportation system, to minimize the impact of commuting for public health. The transition from private to public transportation should be encouraged to increase the benefits for the health of the commuter community.
|Number of pages
|Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development
|Published - Nov 2018
- Health outcomes