Garlic extract effectivity against the viability of biofilms produced by streptococcus mutans Serotypes C and F in pediatric patients with early childhood caries

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Abstract

Early childhood caries (ECC) is characterized by the presence of one or more decayed teeth, the presence of a lesion with or without a cavity, caries-induced tooth loss, or patching of the surface of deciduous teeth from birth to the age of 72 months. Streptococcus mutans is the most common microorganism of caries and is present in dental plaques. S. mutans is a Gram-positive facultative anaerobic bacteria present in the human oral cavity. Based on serotype-specific polysaccharides, S. mutans is classified into three serotypes: c, e, and f. The prevalence of each serotype based on a study conducted in Jakarta was dominated by serotypes f (85.5%), c (74.2%), and e (22.6%). Garlic (Allium sativum) is known to inhibit the proliferation of various types of pathogenic bacteria. This study aims to test the viability of biofilms produced by S. mutans serotypes c and f in response to treatment with garlic extracts at concentrations of 10%, 25%, 50%, and 100%. Dental biofilm samples were collected from children aged 3-5 years, cultured in TSY20B medium, and confirmed using a conventional PCR technique. Biofilms were established in microwell plates and were incubated for 24 h. Each plate was exposed to garlic extract at concentrations of 10%, 25%, 50%, or 100%, with 0.2% chlorhexidine serving as positive control. The methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium assay was used to assess cell viability. There was a statistically significant decrease (p ≤ 0.001) in the viability of biofilms produced by S. mutans serotypes c and f when exposed to garlic extract concentrations of 50% and 100%. The four concentrations decrease the viability of S. mutans serotypes c and f. The decrease in the viability of S. mutans serotype c was significant at concentrations of 50% and 100%, while that of serotype f was significant at a concentration of 100%. Garlic extracts can be used as alternative antibacterial oral agents against S. mutans.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)894-899
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of International Dental and Medical Research
Volume12
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019

Keywords

  • Antibacterial
  • Early childhood caries
  • Garlic extract
  • Streptococcus mutans

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