Gaps in antimicrobial stewardship programmes in Asia: a survey of 10 countries

Feng Yee Chang, Yin Ching Chuang, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Anucha Apisarnthanarak, Maria Fe Tayzon, Andrea L. Kwa, Cheng Hsun Chiu, Zakuan Zainy Deris, Suraya Amir Husin, Hazimah Hashim, Anis Karuniawati, Altaf Ahmed, Tetsuya Matsumoto, Van Kinh Nguyen, Thi Thu Huong Dinh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: To determine antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programme practices in Asian secondary- and tertiary-care hospitals. Methods: AMS programme team members within 349 hospitals from 10 countries (Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam) completed a questionnaire via a web-based survey link. The survey contained questions as to whether 12 core components deemed essential for AMS programmes were implemented. Results: Overall, 47 (13.5%) hospitals fulfilled all core AMS programme components. There was a mean positive response rate (PRR) of 85.6% for the responding countries in relation to a formal hospital leadership statement of support for AMS activities, but this was not matched by budgeted financial support for AMS activities (mean PRR 57.1%). Mean PRRs were ≥80.0% for the core AMS team comprising a physician or other leader responsible for AMS activities, a pharmacist and infection control and microbiology personnel. Most hospitals had access to a timely and reliable microbiology service (mean PRR 90.4%). Facility-specific antibiotic treatment guidelines for common infections (mean PRR 78.7%) were in place more often than pre-authorization and/or prospective audit and feedback systems (mean PRR 66.5%). In terms of AMS monitoring and reporting, PRRs of monitoring specific antibiotic use, regularly publishing AMS outcome measures, and the existence of a hospital antibiogram were 75.1%, 64.4% and 77.9%, respectively. Conclusions: Most hospitals participating in this survey did not have AMS programmes fulfilling the requirements for gold standard AMS programmes in hospital settings. Urgent action is required to address AMS funding and resourcing deficits.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberdlac117
JournalJAC-Antimicrobial Resistance
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2022


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