Frailty among HIV-1 Infected Adults under Antiretroviral Therapy in Indonesia

Wulunggono Wulunggono, Evy Yunihastuti, Hamzah Shatri, Edy Rizal Wahyudi, Youdiil Ophinni

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11 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND: Increasing age of HIV-1 infected population brought about the risk of frailty as comorbidity, whose prevalence is higher in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Indonesia as an LMIC also bears a major burden of HIV-1 epidemic with a similarly aging population, but the prevalence of frailty and its predictors are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To identify the prevalence of frailty and analyze its associated factors, among HIV-1 infected adults under antiretroviral therapy in Indonesia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among HIV-infected individuals with inclusion criteria of age ≥30 years old and underwent ART for at least 6 months. The main assessment was done using Fried's frailty phenotype score, which categorizes subjects into non-frail, pre-frail, or frail. Factors associated with frailty were characterized and multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: A total of 164 subjects were recruited; male subjects were 118 (72%), the median age was 40.5 years old, and the median CD4 nadir was 53 cells/μl. Frailty was identified among 90 (54.9%) subjects with 84 (51.2%) identified as pre-frail and 6 (3.7%) as frail, with dominant frailty phenotype was weakness in grip strength. The multivariate model showed that depression was the only factor significantly correlated with pre-frailty and frailty (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.04-4.43, p=0.036). CONCLUSION: Frailty is a common occurrence among HIV-infected patients under ART, with depression as an independent predictive factor.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)204-213
Number of pages10
JournalCurrent HIV research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019


  • AIDS
  • antiretroviral therapy
  • depression
  • frailty.
  • HIV-1
  • LMIC


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