Background: Tobacco is widely used as the main raw material of cigarette, however it also can be used as a mosquito repellent. Since tobacco contains nicotine, d-limone, indol, and pyridine, that can be used as an alternative of chemical active of mosquito repellent to substitute N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) and Permethrin. But, as a mosquito repellent, the active ingredients should not able to penetrate the human skin. Methods: This study was conducted to characterize the formula and its stability, as well as the determination nicotine permeation profile through the rat skin. The emulgel was formulated in 4 different compositions: 1 formulation without the presence of tobacco extract and the others three were differentiated by the concentration of the extract loaded in formulations. Result: Organoleptic observation of the emulgel was white and brownish-white that getting darker along with the increasing of tobacco extract concentration. The emulgel of tobacco extract was stable at 4°±2°C, 28°±2°C, 40°±2°C, after cycling test and centrifugation test. Emulgel with the highest concentration of tobacco extract was tested on its permeability profile of nicotine. The total cumulative of nicotine permeated, percentage of nicotine penetrated through the rat skin and flux of nicotine of tobacco extract emulgel were 14180.628 μg/cm, 157.562%, and 22.986 μg/cm2 min, respectively. Conclusion: It can be concluded that, the four formulas of emulgel were stable and the percentage of penetrated nicotine was still below the toxic level.
- Physical stability