Formulation and effectiveness of a hand sanitizer gel produced using Salam bark extract

Silvia Surini, Nurul Isti Amirtha, Delly Chipta Lestari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: The objectives of this study were to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Salam bark extract against Staphylococcus aureus, formulate and evaluate hand sanitizer gels containing Salam bark extract, and determine the effectiveness of the gels against bacteria on the palms of the hands. Methods: The gel base was optimized by preparing three formulations containing carbomer and triethanolamine at ratios of 0.25%:0.5%, 0.5%:1%, and 0.5%:2%. The best gel formulation was mixed with Salam bark extract. The physical stability of gels containing 4.04% (formulation 1) and 7.77% (formulation 2) Salam bark extract was measured at 4±2°C, 27±2°C, and 40±2°C for 12 weeks. The effectiveness of the gels was examined on the palms of 30 respondents. Results: The MIC of Salam bark extract was 3.12%. The best gel base contained carbomer and triethanolamine at a ratio of 1-4 and a pH of 5.50. Formulations 1 and 2 gels had good stability for 12 weeks. Formulation 2 tended to decrease the number of bacteria (p=0.125) better than formulation 1 (p=1.000). In the hedonic study, formulation 2 was preferred to formulation 1. Conclusion: Formulation 2 gel with 7.77% Salam bark extract was more effective than formulation 1 gel with 4.04% extract in decreasing the number of bacteria on the palms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)216-220
Number of pages5
JournalInternational Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics
Issue numberSpecial Issue 1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2018


  • Antibacterial
  • Hand sanitizer
  • Minimum inhibitory concentration
  • Physical stability
  • Salam bark extract


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