Formulation and characterization of bitter melon extract (Momordica charantia) loaded phytosomes

Rhatih Eka Sasongko, Silvia Surini, Fadlina Chany Saputri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: Phytosomes are a novel drug delivery system that offers better absorption and bioavailability for extract or phytoconstituents. The aim of this study was developing bitter melon extract load phytosomes with appropriate characteristics for transdermal delivery. Methods: Three formulas were developed, F1, F2 and F3 with weight ratios of extract and phosphatidylcholine were 1: 1, 1: 2 and 1: 3, respectively. Bitter melon fruit was extracted using a maceration method and the marker compounds were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Phytosomes were prepared using thin layer method and then characterized, in terms of morphology, particle size distribution, zeta potential and entrapment efficiency. Results: The results of pytosomes characterization reveals that the F3 was the optimal formula. It has a spherical shape, particle size (DV-mean) was 282.3 ± 16.4 nm, zeta potential value at -39.2 ± 0.14 mV and entrapment efficiency of 90.06 ± 1.07 %. Conclusion: Bitter melon extract loaded phytosomes with a weight ratio of extract and phosphatidylcholine 1:3 (F3) was selected as an optimal formula with appropriate characteristics for transdermal delivery.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1235-1241
Number of pages7
JournalPharmacognosy Journal
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019


  • Bitter melon
  • Momordica charantia
  • Phytosomes
  • Thin layer method
  • Transdermal delivery


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