Formative research on development of semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for selected multi ethnic foods in Jakarta

Rina Agustina, Gabriela Widyakarin Tjandra, Nurul Hasanah, Lidya Yudith Priskila, Ayu Diandra Sari, Fitriana Nugraheni, Arini Ayatika Sadariskar, Okky Lupita, Murdani Abdullah, Ratna Djuwita, Inge Permadhi, Erfi Prafiantini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Diet is an important modifiable risk factor for many diseases. However, specific tools for assessing food in a routine consumption among multi-ethnic urban population is limited. Therefore, we conducted a formative research to develop ethnic-specific semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires (ES-SFFQs) for several ethnicities living in Jakarta. We performed an online search, formative research, and questionnaires pretesting. The formative research used qualitative method including four focus group discussions (FGDs), eight in-depth interviews (IDIs) for 2 people in each ethnicity, and market surveys. Before conducting FGDs and IDIs, a literature review was done to construct initial ethnic food list. Respondents were apparently healthy adults aged 19-55 years from Minangkabau, Sundanese, Chinese, and Betawi ethnicities whose parents originated from the same ethnicity. Pretesting was performed to 25 subjects (Minangkabau, n=6, Sundanese, n=6, Chinese, n=7, Betawi, n=6) to confirm the final ES-FFQs. Four ES-SFFQs were developed common and ethnic foods. Each food was classified into 10 food groups in the final ES-SFFQs. A total of 248 common foods, 35 Minangkabau foods, 36 Sundanese foods, 31 Chinese foods, and 38 Betawi foods are included in the four final ES-SFFQs that were derived from the data of commonly consumed food based on total contribution of energy intake per day. Four ES-SFFQs have been developed and pretested comprising 248 common foods, 35 Minangkabau, 36 Sundanese, 31 Chinese, and 38 Betawi foods. This developed ES-SFFQs can facilitate the standardization and comparable assessment of diets among ethnic groups in Jakarta and other areas.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)254-262
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of International Dental and Medical Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019


  • Ethnic food
  • Food frequency questionnaire
  • Formative research
  • Multi-ethnicities


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