Background Stunting among children under five years of age is among the highest in Indonesia. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food consumption diversity and nutritional status among children aged 6-23 months in Indonesia. Methods The data used came from the results of the 2018 Basic Health Research. The main independent variable was the diversity of food consumption. Control variables included breastfeeding practices and demographic and socioeconomic factors. Using ordinal logistic regression, the role of food consumption diversity in influencing nutritional status was examined after controlling for breastfeeding practices and demographic and socioeconomic factors. Results The results of the study showed that the diversity of food consumption (AOR = 1.15; 95%CI: 1.07-1.24) significantly and statistically influenced nutritional status of children age 6-23 months in Indonesia even after controlling for the effects of breastfeeding practices and demographic and socioeconomic factors. Higher odds of having normal nutritional status compared to being stunted or severely stunted was associated with consuming food according to the dietary diversity. Higher odds of having normal nutritional status compared to being stunted or severely stunted was also significantly and statistically associated with being ever breastfed (AOR = 1.33; 95%CI: 1.22-1.46), aged 6-11 months (AOR = 3.07; 95%CI: 2.79-3.38), female (AOR = 1.35; 95%CI: 1.25-1.46), children of non-working mothers (AOR = 1.12; 95%CI: 1.04-1.21), children of higher educated mothers (AOR = 1.50; 95%CI: 1.30-1.72), children from higher wealth quintile households (AOR = 1.65; 95%CI: 1.44-1.85), children from smaller size family (AOR = 1.07; 95%CI: 1.05-1.10), and urban children (AOR = 1.16; 95%CI:1.08-1.25). Conclusion A profound percentage of children aged 6-23 months in Indonesia experienced stunting and severely stunting. Children who did not receive minimum dietary diversity were more likely to suffer from stunting. The findings from this study suggest that to ensure the achievement of national goal of preventing stunting and sustainable development goal of ending all forms of malnutrition in Indonesia, the strategy should promote the fulfillment of minimum food consumption diversity.