Objective: To examine caregivers' perceptions and practices related to food and personal hygiene and its association with diarrhea in children 6 to 36 months of age who suffered recurrent diarrhea. Design: This qualitative study, conducted in March and April 2006, used both in-depth interviews and direct observation data. Setting: Urban Tangerang, near Jakarta, Indonesia. Participants: Twenty-four mothers whose monthly household income was less than $160 US and had latrines in their homes. Phenomenon of Interest: To examine the relationship between mothers' perceptions and behaviors related to diarrhea, food hygiene, and personal hygiene. Analysis: Interview transcripts were analyzed based on the phenomenon of interest and coded for common themes. Results: Mothers differentiated diarrhea episodes as either disease or nondisease. Most mothers associated the importance of food hygiene with disease prevention, contaminating agents, and health. Mothers commonly wiped cutting boards with a kitchen towel after slicing vegetables, whereas they washed the board with soap and water after cutting raw meat. Mothers perceived that the importance of personal hygiene was for maintaining health and cleanliness. The majority of mothers washed their hands without soap after performing housework and cooking. Conclusions and Implications: Improving mothers' knowledge while incorporating existing perceptions might lead to positive changes.