Fatigue and sleepiness during long-duration driving: A preliminary study among Indonesian commercial drivers

Hardianto Iridiastadi, Ibrahim Abdurrahman, Maya Puspasari, Herman Rahadian Soetisna

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Fatigue and sleepiness are two major factors that have been reported to contribute to road crash and accidents in Indonesia. Fatigue among commercial drivers is probably a common phenomenon, particularly during long-duration driving. This study aimed at characterizing fatigue and sleepiness during long-duration driving. Nine commercial drivers were recruited in this field study and were requested to drive a multipurpose vehicle for three trips back and forth between two major cities. Each trip was completed within 4 hours, with about 3 to 3.5 hours of continuous driving (and 0.5 to 1 hour of rest). Fatigue was assessed by utilizing the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), which was administered for 5 minutes immediately following the completion of each trip. A video camera was employed to capture blink frequency, and for each trip, this measure was determined during 5 minutes after two hours of driving. Subjective ratings were also collected during the task and included the Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory (SOFI) and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). The results of this study demonstrated a consistent increase in the blink rate and subjective measures of fatigue. A significant association was also found between the blink rate and SOFI measures, indicating an association between those objective and subjective measures. Although not statistically significant, there were also changes in PVT parameters associated with driving duration. However, no significant association was found between PVT parameters and the subjective measures. This study found that a minimum of six hours of intermittent driving was adequate in inducing fatigue and sleepiness, despite the seemingly sufficient amount of rest break. Based on the findings of this study, it is suggested that long-duration driving be limited to a maximum of 12 hours, and that a minimum of 30 minutes of rest be provided after 3 to 4 hours of driving. This finding should be used as a basis for scheduling drivers and for finding the appropriate intervention strategy for mitigating fatigue and sleepiness risks during prolonged driving tasks.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17-24
Number of pages8
JournalTransport Problems
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Driving
  • Fatigue
  • Karolinska Sleepiness Scale
  • Psychomotor Vigilance Task
  • Sleepiness
  • Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory


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