Factors associated with pasung (physical restraint and confinement) of schizophrenia patients in Bogor regency, West Java Province, Indonesia 2017

Nenden Hikmah Laila, Renti Mahkota, Siddharudha Shivalli, Krisnawati Bantas, Tri Krianto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder affecting more than 21 million worldwide. In Indonesia, 14.3% of households have a patient with a mental disorder, and the majority of these are in rural areas. Family members in Indonesia use repressive social measures like pasung (physical restraint and confinement) for these patients. A study was conducted with the objective to determine the factors associated with pasung among patients with schizophrenia in Bogor Regency, West Java Province, Indonesia 2017. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Bogor Regency from May-June 2017. A case subject was defined as a patient with schizophrenia who was ever subjected to pasung and a control subject was defined as a patient with schizophrenia residing in the same geographical area and never subjected to pasung. Multi-stage sampling was used to select case and control subjects from the registered reports of the Health Service of Bogor Regency (2012-16) in 34 sub districts and 59 health centers. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with pasung. Attributable and population attributable risks (AR, PAR) for pasung were calculated. Results: A total of 114 case and 136 control subjects were studied. Patient's aggressive or violent behavior (AdjOR: 4.49, 95%CI: 2.52-8.0), unemployment (AdjOR: 2.74, 95%CI: 1.09-6.9) and informal employment (AdjOR: 2.5, 95%CI: 1.1-5.84) in the family and negative attitude of the family towards the patient (AdjOR: 2.52, 95%CI: 1.43-4.43) were associated with pasung. Patient's aggressive or violent behavior (PAR = 44.3%) and unemployment in the family (PAR = 49.3%) were the predominant factors of pasung. Conclusions: Patient's aggressive or violent behavior, negative attitude of the family towards the patient and unemployment in the family were associated with pasung. We recommend health education and encouraging family members to shift patients with schizophrenia exhibiting aggressive or violent behavior to a mental health facility. Strengthening of basic mental health services and involving family members while treating patients with schizophrenia to develop positive attitudes could be considered. Creating employment opportunities and a social support system for treated patients with schizophrenia and family members could further avert pasung.

Original languageEnglish
Article number162
JournalBMC Psychiatry
Volume19
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 28 May 2019

Keywords

  • Aggressive
  • Discourse
  • Pasung
  • Schizophrenia
  • Violent

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