Factors affecting vaccination demand in Indonesia: a secondary analysis and multimethods national assessment

Hafizah Jusril, Cut Novianti Rachmi, Mohammad Ruhul Amin, Michelle Dynes, Vensya Sitohang, Andi Sari Bunga Untung, Rita Damayanti, Iwan Ariawan, Paul M. Pronyk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives Vaccine hesitancy remains a major barrier to immunisation coverage worldwide. We explored influence of hesitancy on coverage and factors contributing to vaccine uptake during a national measles-rubella (MR) campaign in Indonesia. Design Secondary analyses of qualitative and quantitative data sets from existing cross-sectional studies conducted during and around the campaign. Methods Quantitative data used in this assessment included daily coverage reports generated by health workers, district risk profiles that indicate precampaign immunisation programme performance, and reports of campaign cessation due to vaccine hesitancy. We used t-test and χ 2 tests for associations. The qualitative assessment employed three parallel national and regional studies. Deductive thematic analysis examined factors for acceptance among caregivers, health providers and programme managers. Results Coverage data were reported from 6462 health facilities across 395 districts from 1 August to 31 December 2018. The average district coverage was 73%, with wide variation between districts (2%-100%). One-third of districts fell below 70% coverage thresholds. Sixty-two of 395 (16%) districts paused the campaign due to hesitancy. Coverage among districts that never paused campaign activities due to hesitancy was significantly higher than rates for districts ever-pausing the campaign (81% vs 42%; p<0.001). Precampaign adequacy of district immunisation programmes did not explain coverage gaps (p=0.210). Qualitative analysis identified acceptance enablers including using digital health monitoring and feedback systems, increasing caregiver knowledge and awareness, making immunisation social norm, effective cross-sectoral collaboration, conducive service environment and positive experiences for mothers and children. Barriers included misinformation diffusion on social media, halal-haram issues, lack of healthcare provider knowledge, negative family influences and traditions, previous poor experiences and misinformation on adverse events. Conclusion Barriers to vaccine uptake contributed to coverage gaps during national MR campaign in Indonesia. A range of supply-related and demand-related strategies were identified to address hesitancy contributors. Advancing a portfolio of tailored multilevel interventions will be critical to enhance vaccine acceptance.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere058570
JournalBMJ open
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 11 Aug 2022


  • community child health
  • paediatric infectious disease & immunisation
  • public health
  • quality in health care


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