Objective: This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the sale of non-prescribed antibiotics in Jakarta, Indonesia. Methods: A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted across 190 randomly selected pharmacies in five administrative districts of Jakarta, Indonesia. Data regarding pharmacies were obtained from the Facility of Pharmaceutical Services Ministry of Health Data, in 2014, which includes all pharmacies in Jakarta. Further data were obtained using structured questionnaires. Results: Among the 190 respondents, 15 pharmacies (9.7%) never provided antibiotics without prescription, whereas 44 (23.6%), 60 (31.6%), and 71 pharmacies (36.3%) provided antibiotic services without prescription rarely, sometimes, and always, respectively. Factors considerably associated with the increased sale of antibiotics without a prescription included the attitude and age of pharmacists, the type of pharmacy (independent or chain store), and the presence of pharmacist assistants. Attitude was the most common variable related to providing antibiotics without a prescription. Conclusion: Antibiotics are frequently dispensed by community pharmacies in Jakarta without an appropriate prescription. These findings support the need for strict enforcement of pharmacy laws through improved inspections, and they highlight the need for evidence-based guidelines and educational interventions to improve practices regarding antibiotic provision.
- Antibiotic resistance
- Community pharmacy