Factors affecting the occurrence of otitis media with effusion in preschool and elementary school children: a comparative cross-sectional study

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Identify the risk factors for otitis media with effusion (OME), especially laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR), adenoid hypertrophy and allergic rhinitis, that could be used to develop prevention strategies in children. DESIGN: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted to make sure the adequacy of proportions of OME and non-OME cases in finding the related factors. SETTING: History taking, ear/nose/throat (ENT) examination, and tympanometry were performed in preschool and elementary schools. Flexible fibreoptic nasopharyngolaryngoscopy was performed in a bronchoesophagology outpatient clinic in a tertiary referral hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia. PARTICIPANTS: Preschool and elementary children in East Jakarta, Indonesia were recruited for this study. A total of 2016 participants underwent history taking, ENT examination and tympanometry. The case group was 46 children with OME, and the control group was 46 children without OME. The number of subjects fulfilled the minimum sample size for two proportions comparison. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A type B tympanogram indicated OME. A Reflux Finding Score of more than 7 indicated LPR. Adenoid hypertrophy was diagnosed using flexible fibreoptic nasopharyngolaryngoscopy. Allergic rhinitis was diagnosed using a questionnaire based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood phase III that has been validated for Indonesians. RESULTS: The proportion of LPR in the OME group was significantly higher than in the non-OME group, at 78.3% and 52.2%. The probability of OME occurrence in patients with LPR was 3.3 times higher than in patients without LPR (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.33 to 8.189; p=0.01). There was no significant relationship between adenoid hypertrophy and OME (p=0.211; 95% CI 0.71 to 3.97), and also between allergic rhinitis and OME (p=0.463; 95% CI 0.61 to 4.28). CONCLUSION: The probability of OME occurrence in patients with LPR was 3.3 times higher than in patients without LPR. LPR should be considered in patients with OME and vice versa.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere065291
Pages (from-to)e065291
JournalBMJ open
Volume12
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 28 Sep 2022

Keywords

  • Audiology
  • Laryngology
  • Paediatric otolaryngology

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