Extraction of atenolol from spiked blood serum using a molecularly imprinted polymer sorbent obtained by precipitation polymerization

Aliya Nur Hasanah, Driyanti Rahayu, Rimadani Pratiwi, Tina Rostinawati, Sandra Megantara, Febrina Amelia Saputri, Khanifa Hidayati Puspanegara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Atenolol (ATE) is a cardio-selective β-blocker that is used in the treatment of hypertension over extended periods. However, ATE, like propranolol, has major potential for misuse as a performance-enhancing drug in several sports. Therefore, an efficient and selective separation method is required to detect and monitor the level of ATE in the body. This paper presents a molecularly imprinted polymer with specific and selective binding to ATE using precipitation polymerization. We show that when employed in an optimized molecular imprinted solid phase extraction (MI-SPE) protocol, recoveries of 93.65 ± 1.29% from spiked blood serum with excellent discrimination from other β-blocker drugs is possible. The methodology used in this study includes molecular modeling interaction between ATE and itaconic acid (ITA) as functional monomer, followed by determination of binding constants with spectrophotometry, synthesis of the polymer using precipitation polymerization and ending with characterization and application of polymers to extract ATE in serum. Docking analysis revealed a binding affinity between ATE and ITA of −2.0 kcal/mol with the formation of hydrogen bonding. The association constant between ATE and ITA was studied by UV titration in two different solvents, with evidence of an association constant 6.277 × 10 2 M −1 measured in acetonitrile: methanol (1:1). An optimized MI-SPE protocol was developed for the extraction of ATE from spiked blood serum, obtaining recoveries of 93.65% with excellent selectivity toward other β-blocker drugs.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere01533
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2019


  • Analytical chemistry
  • Materials chemistry
  • Pharmaceutical chemistry


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