BACKGROUND: Androgen (AR) and Estrogen (ER) hormones play an important role in the prenatal and postnatal development of the urogenital tract and especially the penis. Growth factors also influence the development of genital structures. Little is known about the exact role of Mastermind Like Domain 1 (MAMLD1) in sexual development. A role in sex differentiation through supporting testosterone production in critical periods of male development has been suggested. MAMLD1 mutations result in hypospadias with and without a disorder of sexual development (DSD) primarily because of compromised testosterone production around the critical period for fetal sex development, but the underlying etiology remains unclear. AIM: The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between gene factor MAMLD1, AR, ER1, and ER2 with the incidence of hypospadias. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between gene factor MAMLD1, AR, ER1, and ER2 with the incidence of hypospadias. METHODS: From 2017-2018, peri-urethral dartos were harvested from 46 patients with proximal hypospadias, 24 patients with distal hypospadias and 10 patients with normal penile were used as controls. The expressions of MAMLD1, AR, ER1, and ER2 were investigated by one-step quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Median age was 5 years old in the 70 patients with hypospadias and 6 years old in the control subjects. Total specimens taken included 24 distal penile, 46 proximal penile, and 10 normal penile specimens. We found decreasing MAMLD1 and AR expressions, but ER2 expression increased in patients with hypospadias compared to controls, which was statistically significant (p < 0.001). A positive correlation between MAMLD1 and AR was found in patients with hypospadias (r = 0.062; p = 0.038). CONCLUSIONS: Decreasing of MAMLD1 and AR expression was followed by increasing ER2 expression in patients with hypospadias. MAMLD1 had a positive correlation with AR so the defect of MAMLD1 may influence AR and increase the incidence of hypospadias.
|Number of pages||5|
|Journal||Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences|
|Publication status||Published - 2 Jan 2020|
- Androgen receptor
- Estrogen receptor
- Mastermind-like domain 1