Experimental Study on the Effect of Pitching Angle on Tandem NACA 0030 and NACA 4412 Airfoils

Sheila Tobing, Kenneth Timothy, Rainer L. Surjadi, A. I. Aria, Arka Soewono

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Inspired by insect flight, oscillatory motion with pitching and plunging has been studied, and tandem configurations have been explored to enhance propulsive efficiency. As a first step in analyzing an oscillating tandem airfoil configuration, tandem airfoils are modeled as stationary. The present study investigates the aerodynamic effects of pitching angles on a tandem airfoil system using two NACA airfoil profiles, NACA 0030 and NACA 4412. While numerical studies have examined wing profiles and pitching angles, experimental analyses are relatively scarce due to their cost and time intensiveness. This study aims to complement existing numerical data and provide new insights into the aerodynamic performance of tandem airfoils. Experimental investigations are conducted in a wind tunnel for pitching angle combinations of the front and rear airfoils of 5°-10°, 5°-15°, and 10°-15°. The findings indicate that increasing the pitching angle of the tandem foil oscillation system results in a higher drag coefficient (CD) and lift coefficient (C). For the NACA 4412 profile, the maximum CD and C values were obtained at a pitching angle of 10°-15°, with CD = 1.553 and C = 2.0565. The NACA 0030 profile exhibits a decreasing trend in CD with increasing pitching angle, reaching a maximum CD = 0.883 at 5°-10°, while C increases with pitching angle, peaking at C = 0.619.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)501-507
Number of pages7
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


  • Experimental analyses
  • NACA 0030
  • NACA 4412
  • Oscillating Tandem Airfoil
  • Wind tunnel


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