Experimental and modelling study of the effect of adding starch-modified natural rubber hybrid to the vulcanization of sorghum fibers-filled natural rubber

Mochamad Chalid, Yuli Amalia Husnil, Santi Puspitasari, Adi Cifriadi

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1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Natural rubber-starch copolymer hybrid obtained from our laboratory was used as an additive for rubber compound. In this work, the effect of adding this hybrid material to vulcanization kinetics of sorghum fibers-filled natural rubber was studied. The rubber compounds were added with hybrid material at various loadings, i.e., zero to two phr and thus cured at three different temperatures, i.e., 130, 140, and 150C. The molecular behaviors due to the hybrid addition were investigated by Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The rheological phenomena of the rubber compounds were studied by performing torque analysis in moving die rheometer. The obtained data were utilized to develop the thermodynamic modeling. The compatibility of sorghum fibers-natural rubber blends in the presence of starch-modified natural rubber were characterized using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM). FTIR results show noticeable changes in the peak intensity of particular functional groups from rubber and natural fiber as evidence of molecular interaction enhancements between rubber and natural fibers caused by incorporating the starch-modified natural rubber coupling agent to rubber-natural fiber blends. The curing time for these blends was reduced with lower required activation energy. SEM images show no visible gaps in morphology between natural rubber and the filler indicating that the addition of hybrid material to the blends also improves the compatibility between the fibers and the rubber matrix.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3017
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
JournalPolymers
Volume12
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020

Keywords

  • Compatibility
  • Coupling agent
  • Kinetic study
  • Natural fibers
  • Rubber composites
  • Vulcanization

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