Expanding self-consciousness of health status for diabetes chronic complications among adults: a systematic review

Dikha Ayu Kurnia, Pradana Soewondo, Dewi Irawaty, Jahja Umar, Debie Dahlia, Andreas Schmitt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


OBJECTIVE: Self-consciousness is defined as a subject (I) then becomes the object (Me) associated with a present moment of self-experience in which one is aware of their experience without any reflexive judgment attached, a state commonly investigated in mindfulness studies. On the other hand, self-consciousness is viewed as a reflexive experience and, thus, as a synonym for self-reflection. Self-consciousness is an important determinant of behaviors. Expanding self-consciousness is important among adults with diabetes to optimize health prevention and compliance with diabetes self-management in the long term. The chronic complications of diabetes comprise heart disease, stroke, nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy. This review aims to explain the relationship between self-consciousness and chronic diabetes complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic literature search was conducted in the English language in several databases. The Joanna-Briggs Institute was referenced for the quality assessment of case studies, cohort and cross-sectional studies, and qualitative studies, while systematic reviews were evaluated through PRISMA-S. Results were reported according to the PRISMA guidelines. RESULTS: A total of 89 studies related to self-consciousness of diabetes chronic complications were not found. However, many findings related to chronic complications are based on a lack of knowledge of diabetes and long-term self-management. People with less education, multiple comorbidities, and cognitive dysfunction need lifestyle changes to prevent diabetes and chronic complications. CONCLUSIONS: Future research should be oriented toward assessing the risk of chronic diabetes complications. Our findings suggest that research should expand self-consciousness and caring partnerships to improve self-consciousness and patients’ obedience.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12070-12079
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


  • Adults
  • Chronic complications
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Expanding self-consciousness
  • Health status


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