Cripto-1 is a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored signaling protein of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-Cripto-1-FRL1-Cryptic (CFC) family and plays a significant role in the early developmental stages and in the different types of cancer cells, epithelial to mesenchymal transition and tumor angiogenesis. Previously, we have developed cancer stem cells (miPS-LLCcm) from mouse iPSCs by culturing them in the presence of conditioned medium of Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) cells for four weeks. Nodal and Cripto-1 were confirmed to be expressed in miPS-LLCcm cells by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (rt-qPCR) implying that Cr-1 was required in maintaining stemness. To investigate the biological effect of adding exogenous soluble CR-1 to the cancer stem cells, we have prepared a C-terminally truncated soluble form of recombinant human CR-1 protein (rhsfCR-1), in which the GPI anchored moiety was removed by substitution of a stop codon through site-directed mutagenesis. rhsfCR-1 effectively suppressed the proliferation and sphere forming ability of miPS-LLCcm cells in a dose-dependent manner in the range of 0 to 5 µg/mL, due to the suppression of Nodal-Cripto-1/ALK4/Smad2 signaling pathway. Frequency of sphere-forming cells was dropped from 1/40 to 1/69 by rhsfCR-1 at 1 µg/mL. Moreover, rhsfCR-1 in the range of 0 to 1 µg/mL also limited the differentiation of miPS-LLCcm cells into vascular endothelial cells probably due to the suppression of self-renewal, which should reduce the number of cells with stemness property. As demonstrated by a soluble form of exogenous Cripto-1 in this study, the efficient blockade would be an attractive way to study Cripto-1 dependent cancer stem cell properties for therapeutic application.
|Journal||International Journal of Molecular Sciences|
|Publication status||Published - Nov 2018|
- Cancer stem cells
- Mouse iPS
- Recombinant Cripto-1